(Solution) 1111/wre.12101 Effects Of Density And Sowing Pattern On Weed Suppression And Grain Yield In Three Varieties Of Maize Under High Weed Pressure C... | Snapessays.com


(Solution) 1111/wre.12101 Effects of density and sowing pattern on weed suppression and grain yield in three varieties of maize under high weed pressure C...


The summary must be in a Word Document, double-spaced, using 12 point Arial font.  The length of the summary must be no more than 200 words. The spelling, grammar and sentence construction must reflect senior-level work. The best example of concise and clear writing can be found in the abstract of the papers we read for this class. THESE ARE ELEMENTS THAT MUST BE INCLUDED IN YOUR SUMMARY 1. Your summary must begin with a clear statement of what you think is the primary purpose of the article. (2.5 pts.)2. Next, select, identify and discuss the specific data used in the article that supports the primary purpose. You may clip copies of figures and tables to include in the summary. (2.5 pts.)3. Next, state and discuss the major implication(s) of the research and why you think it is important. (2.5 pts.)4. Finally, describe (with some detail) additional research that you think needs to be accomplished to extend the findings of the paper, and state why you think it is important. (2.5 pts.)It might be useful to use four paragraphs each beginning with something like the following. "I believe the primary purpose of this article was...".  "The specific data used in the study that supports the primary purpose is...".  "The major implications of the research were... and they are important because...".  "Additional research that needs to be accomplished..., which is important because...".All of the above must be included within the 200 word limit. Note that the abstract of the Ling et al (2015) article is only 167 words, so it is possible to write a professional summary within a 200 word count.  If you carefully read their abstract and you will observe that there or no unnecessary or vague words, or colloquial non-professional expressions.  Every word, phrase, and sentence must be concise with proper grammar, spelling, and punctuation.  In order to receive the full 10 points your summary must be perfect.  You should expect to write and revise several versions before submitting your final copy.  Your summaries will be graded with Word track changes and comments.Effects of density and sowing pattern on weed

 

suppression and grain yield in three varieties of

 

maize under high weed pressure

 

CMAR

 

±

 

IN* & J WEINER † * Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Jorge Tadeo Lozano University, Bogot ± a, Colombia, and † Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark Received 18 February 2014 Revised version accepted 21 May 2014 Subject Editor: Clarence Swanton, Guelph, Canada Summary We tested the hypothesis that improved weed suppres- sion by maize can be achieved through increased crop density and spatial uniformity. Field experiments on three varieties of maize sown at three densities (5, 7 and 10.5 seeds m ± 2 ) and in two spatial patterns (grid pattern and rows) under very high weed pressure from Brachiaria brizantha were performed in 2012 and 2013. We measured weed biomass 1 month after sowing and at harvest, and grain yield at harvest. Density, variety and sowing pattern all had strong and signi±cant effects on both weed biomass and yield. On average, weed biomass was reduced (by 72% in the ±rst year and 58% in the second year), and grain yield was increased (by 48% and 44%) at the highest density in the grid pattern compared with standard sowing practices (medium density, row pattern). There was a signi±cant density 9 variety interaction, which is evi- dence for genetic differences in the response of the vari- eties to density in characteristics that in²uence weed suppression. The variety that suppressed weeds best at high density had the lowest variation in the angle of insertion of the oldest living leaf at harvest (leaf 6), supporting the hypothesis that reduced phenotypic plasticity may be advantageous for weed suppression under high density and spatial uniformity. Increased density and uniformity can contribute to weed manage- ment in maize in many cases, potentially reducing the need for herbicides or mechanical weed control. Keywords: crop/weed competition, phenotypic plastic- ity, sowing density, spatial uniformity, Brachiaria brizantha , Zea mays . M AR ± IN C&W EINER J (2014). Effects of density and sowing pattern on weed suppression and grain yield in three varieties of maize under high weed pressure. Weed Research 54 , 467 – 474. Introduction Weeds are the largest source of yield losses worldwide, and there is a great need for new and environmentally friendly approaches to weed management as alterna- tives or supplements to chemical and mechanical weed control. Several studies have shown increased weed suppression with decreased crop row distance or increased crop density, and yield can also be higher in a more uniform pattern even without weed pressure. Narrower rows are reported to suppress weeds in organic wheat (Drews et al. , 2009) and rice (Chauhan & Johnson, 2011). In maize ( Zea mays L.), where yield losses due to weeds can be very high, especially in developing countries (Kwiligwa et al. , 1994), there are several studies showing increased weed suppression Correspondence : J Weiner, Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Rolighedsvej 21, DK-1958 Frederiksberg, Denmark. Tel: (+45) 3533 2822; Fax: (+45) 3533 2821; E-mail: [email protected]

 

©

 

2014 European Weed Research Society

 

54

 

, 467–474

 

DOI: 10.1111/wre.12101

 


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