Explain, in your own words (without going into mathematical details, although you may use the odd equation for illustrative purposes), the main features of the Heisenberg-Born-Jordan atom, as described by their new theory of Quantum Mechanics, using quotes from the papers of Born and Jordan and the analysis of that paper by Fedak and Prentis. The explanation should include: what are the new variables describing the states of the atom? What are their fundamental properties? How do they link to observables? The two papers are attached.Also add referencesM. Born, Z. Phys.
On Quantum Mechanics
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Translation into English:
Sources of Quantum Mechanics,
Ed. by B. L. van der Waerden, North Holland, Amsterdam (1967) 277.
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The recently published theoretical approach of Heisenberg is here developed
into a systematic theory of quantum mechanics (in the ?rst place for systems hav-
ing one degree of freedom) with the aid of mathematical matrix methods. After
a brief survey of the latter, the mechanical equations of motion are derived from
a variational principle and it is shown that using Heisenberg’s quantum condition,
the principle of energy conservation and Bohr’s frequency condition follow from the
mechanical equations. Using the anharmonic oscillator as example, the question of
uniqueness of the solution and of the signi?cance of the phases of the partial vibra-
tions is raised. The paper concludes with an attempt to incorporate electromagnetic
?eld laws into the new theory.
The theoretical approach of Heisenberg
recently published in this Journal,
which aimed at setting up a new kinematical and mechanical formalism in
conformity with the basic requirements of quantum theory, appears to us
of considerable potential signi?cance. It represents an attempt to render
W.Heisenberg, Zs. f. Phys.
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