(Solution) An applied anthropologist, rather than just providing data about a culture to an organization or government, who engages in the actual development... > Snapessays.com


(Solution) An applied anthropologist, rather than just providing data about a culture to an organization or government, who engages in the actual development...


1. An applied anthropologist, rather than just providing data about a culture to an organization or government, who engages in the actual development of policy is performing the role of:

 

A. facilitator

 

B. analyst

 

C. informant

 

D. mediator

 

 

6. Problems sometimes arise between applied anthropologists and private developers or government officials. Many agencies want to implement changes immediately, without consideration for the people who will be impacted. Anthropologists often recommend against these rapidly planned innovations and, as a consequence, the agencies ignore recommendations. In these circumstances, applied anthropologists have often been forced to take an advocacy approach, or the:

 

A. representative role

 

B. analyst role

 

C. facilitator role

 

D. informant role

 

 

9. When patients in Thailand used a combination of ritual, magic, and modern scientific medicine to treat an illness, Louis Golomb referred to this behavior as:

 

A. the multi-mix cure

 

B. being maladaptive and potentially dangerous

 

C. therapeutic pluralism

 

D. the multiple treatment scenario

 

 

10. The anthropologist who studied heroin addicts in U.S. society is:

 

A. Margaret Mead

 

B. Clifford Geertz

 

C. Michael Agar

 

D. Louis Leakey

 

 

11. While studying the use of crack cocaine in Spanish Harlem, anthropologist Philippe Bourgois found that:

 

A. Crack dealers viewed their clients as "lost souls" ripe for exploitation and manipulation.

 

B. Crack dealing was viewed as the most realistic route to upward mobility and the achievement of the American Dream.

 

C. Crack users could be effectively treated by administering high doses of heroin combined with methadone.

 

D. Children under the age of five were often used to manufacture and distribute crack when police activities increased in an area.

 

 

14. Early twentieth century anthropologists argued that since there are no universal moral values, each society's values are valid with respect to the specific circumstances and conditions of that society. Hence, no society can claim to be in a superior position in regard to morals or ethics. The view that we cannot impose the values of one society on other societies is called:

 

A. ethical relativism

 

B. moral dilemma

 

C. social morality

 

D. social ethics

 

E. racial esteem

 

 

15. In order to tolerate practices such as racism, child abuse, spouse abuse, homicide, torture, human sacrifice, and the mass murder (genocide) of Jews, Gypsies, and homosexuals by the Nazis, one would have to abide strictly by the principle of:

 

A. lost causes

 

B. misplaced perceptions

 

C. ethical relativism

 

D. moral turpitude

 

E. immoral tolerance

 

 

19. Which of the following was NOT among Van Willigen and Channa's recommendations for decreasing the incidence of dowry death in India?

 

A. strengthening legislation that prohibits the institution of dowry

 

B. establishing a gender-neutral inheritance law in which women and men receive equal shares

 

C. passing a requirement for universal marriage registration and licensing

 

D. working towards the achievement of gender equality in India

 

 

21) One of the following statements best describes the approach of participant observation.

 

a) It is a focus on participation that allows the anthropologist to be self-reflexive and write the ethnographic research from a first person account.

 

b) It is a direct experiential approach in which the anthropologist lives with the people under study.

 

c) Participant observation means that the anthropologist uses numerous key informants to help him or her best understand another culture.

 

d) This approach was used in the early years of anthropology when researchers had to travel for weeks to arrive in a community.

 

 

26) Applied anthropology is more _______ than theoretical anthropology.

 

a) time-consuming

 

b) focused on theory

 

c) collaborative

 

d) prestigious

 

 

37) Which of the following statements about applied anthropological projects is true?

 

a) These projects are always an important way to introduce cultural change.

 

b) Anthropological projects are important because the information we learn from one area of the world is applicable to other areas as well.

 

c) Applied anthropology has found the responsible way to improve people’s lives.

 

d) Applied anthropological projects should be carefully sensitive of and adapted to particular cultures and contexts.

 

 

 

38) How can we best use anthropological knowledge about culture?

 

a) We must place anthropologists in decision-making roles where they can choose whether or not to implement culture change.

 

b) We must ensure that what we know is fully understood within its original cultural context and is not a fact removed from its related effects.

 

c) Anthropological knowledge must not be used outside of the culture in which it is generated.

 

d) We must encourage anthropologists to apprentice with their professors for a much longer period of time so that they are prepared for fieldwork.

 

 

39) A student who has completed a Bachelor’s degree in Anthropology is best prepared to:

 

a) work as an applied anthropologist.

 

b) serve as an apprentice with other anthropologists in order to train for fieldwork.

 

c) work as a school teacher in other countries.

 

d) provide valuable skills and insights in a variety of employments.

 

 

45) Yanomamö Indians who chose to reside in Christian mission stations:

 

a) have enjoyed unprecedented economic success

 

b) are unusually 100% literate in their native language

 

c) are taught to value and preserve their native culture

 

d) have become completely dependent on the missionaries

 

 

46) The discovery of gold within Yanomamö territory has led to:

 

a) economic prosperity for certain rainforest tribes

 

b) increased government taxation of Indian communities

 

c) massacres of Yanomamö men, women, and children

 

d) better definitions of reservation boundaries

 

 

47) Saudi Arabian control of the Al-Murrah Bedouins has been accomplished by making their traditional leader, the emir:

 

a) the head of an independent state

 

b) a common Saudi citizen

 

c) a prisoner for life

 

d) a dependent government official

 

 

48) U.S. plantation owners responded to the decline in native Hawaiian populations through infectious diseases by:

 

a) creating indigenous preserves and reservations

 

b) importing labor from China, Japan, and the Philippines

 

c) providing universal health care

 

d) relocating native Hawaiians to reservations in South Dakota

 

 

49) The end of the Ghost Dance movement came about as a result of:

 

a) the massacre of 200 Sioux at Wounded Knee, South Dakota

 

b) the assassination of King Kamehameha

 

c) government repression of New Guinea tribesmen in the 1970s

 

d) the Mexican Revolution and subsequent land reform

 

 

50) In one of the rituals of the Native American Church, participants use as a form of communal sacrament to partake of the Holy Spirit.

 

a) specially prepared maize bread

 

b) modern fast-food items from McDonald's

 

c) the bones of their ancestors

 

d) hallucinogenic cactus buds

 

 

52) Traditional forms of slavery in Africa are open forms of slavery, which means that:

 

A. slaves could be bought and sold on the open market

 

B. certain villages were "open" to the taking of slaves

 

C. slaves were never incorporated into the owner's family

 

D. slaves were permitted to own property and marry

 

 

55) The Bantustan homelands in South Africa were created to:

 

A. return traditional lands to black tribes

 

B. increase the physical separation of blacks and whites

 

C. lay the foundations for independent African republics

 

D. exploit rich mineral deposits and construct factories

 

 

57) Ethnologist Oscar Lewis undertook a cross-cultural study of poverty by studying slum dwellers in:

 

A. Mexico and Puerto Rico

 

B. Nigeria and Pakistan

 

C. Peru and Thailand

 

D. China and Afghanistan

 

 

58) The so-called "culture of poverty" does not exist where poor people:

 

A. see no end to their marginal economic existence

 

B. are provided with real opportunities for social mobility

 

C. work primarily as seasonal, migrant laborers

 

D. receive support, such as welfare, from a central government

 

 

59) Between 1980 and 1990, the annual growth rate in China fell from to 1.4 percent.

 

A. 5.3

 

B. 4.4

 

C. 2.0

 

D. 2.4

 

 

60) The collapse of the former Soviet Union was characterized by:

 

A. declaration of independence by non-Russian republics

 

B. “federalism” and increased solidarity of the states that had been joined to create the Union

 

C. the spread of Communism throughout Eastern Europe

 

D. the disappearance of perestroika and glasnost

 

 

61) Since Mao Zedong’s death, China’s leaders have:

 

A. outlawed students from gaining degrees in the United States

 

B. abolished the commune system

 

C. relied on Communist party cadres to instill egalitarian ideals

 

D?endorsed and attained political reforms

 

 

63. Within any society, an individual occupies a status and plays a .

 

A. flute

 

B. role

 

C. gender

 

D. pattern

 

 

64. Ethnologist Leopold Pospisil has suggested that there are four criteria that must be present in order for a norm to be considered a law. Which of the following is not one of these criteria?

 

A. authority

 

B. intention of universal application

 

C. obligation

 

D. sanction

 

E. internalization

 

 

67. The produced the most extensive material culture found among hunting and gathering societies.

 

a. !Kung San

 

b. Eskimo

 

c. Shoshone

 

d. Mbuti

 

 

68. It has been suggested that, in forager societies, the more concentrated and predictable the resources:

 

a. the less likely the group will be egalitarian in nature

 

b. the least amount of reciprocity will occur

 

c. the more pronounced the conceptions of private ownership and exclusive rights to territories

 

d. the more likely it will be that negative reciprocity will occur when individuals meet

 

 

69. Conflict resolution in forager societies:

 

a. usually involves a formal court style setting where the accused, placed on trial, must defend himself or herself without the help of other members of the group

 

b. is based on informal sanctions because there are generally no formal government institutions or political authority available

 

c. is handled by simply banishing the disputing parties from the band forever

 

d. is unnecessary since there are no recorded examples of disputes or conflicts in these band societies

 

 

In what ways do bands control their population size.

 

a) Infant side

 

b) Splitting the band

 

c) geronticide

 

d) little food leads to lower fertility

 

e) all the above

 

 

83. A subsistence strategy may involve various elements. One of the following lists is most accurate for defining the term, subsistence.

 

a. How people make money

 

b. How people grow, harvest, prepare, transport, market, and eat food

 

c. How people eat, preserve, grow, and transport food

 

d. How people preserve and market food

 

 

84. A society’s environment:

 

a. has no effect on its food-getting strategy.

 

b. absolutely determines the food-getting strategy that is its best adaptation.

 

c. influences its food-getting strategy and sets broad limitations..

 

d. sets very narrow limits on possible alternative food-getting strategies.

 

 

85. The carrying capacity of an environment:

 

a. is the uppermost level of productivity that is ecologically sound in an environment.

 

b. is solely determined by its technology, which can make an environment artificially sound.

 

c. influences only foraging societies, although there are still realistic limits on all environments.

 

d. refers only to the amount of wild plants and animals in an area.

 

 

Christopher Boehm has hypothesized that the lack of political domination and power in band level societies is due to what he calls "reverse dominance." Reverse dominance ensures that the whole group will prevent a single individual from being politically dominant or exercising undue coercive powers. Reverse dominance is practiced through criticism, ridicule, disobedience, and outright abandonment or deposition of the dominating leader. This reverse political process:

 

A. causes bands to be unstable political units that often fission without warning

 

B. reinforces patterns of egalitarianism intrinsic to band level societies

 

C. makes it impossible for a band leader to make any changes that might benefit the group, making band societies static and unchanging cultural entities

 

D. makes it extremely difficult for these bands to find anyone who will assume a leadership role, and bands are often without leaders for years

 

 

111. Which of the following factors favored the rise of the agricultural period?

 

a. Physical environment

 

b. The exceptional intelligence of the residents

 

c. Divine revelation

 

d. Marriage system

 

 

112. The Yanomamo of Venezuela may be classified as belonging to the _________ mode of subsistence.

 

a. Hunter-gatherer

 

b. Pastoralist

 

c. Agriculturalist

 

d. Horticulturalist

 


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