If memory is required over a short interval, which type of practice is superior? Question 1 options:Spaced practiceMassed practice Intermittent practiceRehearsal practiceSaveQuestion 2 (1 point) Where long-term retention is concerned, which type of practice is superior? Question 2 options:Spaced practiceMassed practiceIntermittent practiceRehearsal practiceSaveQuestion 3 (1 point) One theory explaining why the distributed-processing effect works states that the spacing between repetitions facilitates memory by increasing the likelihood that each occurrence of a repeated item is stored in a different way in memory. This is called Question 3 options:Study-Phase Retrieval AccountsDeficient-Processing AccountsEncoding-Variability AccountsMultiprocess AccountsSaveQuestion 4 (1 point) Most mnemonic procedures utilize three memory processes. Which of the follow is NOT one of these? Question 4 options:ImagingSymbolizingOrganizingAssociatingSaveQuestion 5 (1 point) What types of mnemonics are designed to help remember rules, principles, and procedures? Question 5 options:Keyword mnemonicsPeg word mnemonicsLink mnemonicsProcess mnemonicsSaveQuestion 6 (1 point) When information comes into one sensory system (e.g., audition) and produces an effect in another sensory system (e.g., vision), this is called Question 6 options:SchizophreniaThe “S mnemonic”Cross-modal transferSynesthesiaSaveQuestion 7 (1 point) According to Ericsson and his colleagues, which of the following is NOT one of the three general principles for exceptional memory? Question 7 options:Source memory encodingMeaningful encodingRetrieval structureSpeedupSaveQuestion 8 (1 point) If a person cannot recall a word, but is able to retrieve some information about the word (e.g., the first letter, the number of syllables, etc.), this is called the _____ phenomenon.Question 8 options:Pseudo-amnesiaTip-of-the-tongueEdge-of-consciousnessNearly-knownSaveQuestion 9 (1 point) The paradigm wherein a person is asked to judge whether two visually presented stimuli (e.g., letters or three-dimensional shapes) are identical or mirror reflections of each other is called Question 9 options:Mental scanningMental rotationImagery effectPicture superiority effectSaveQuestion 10 (1 point) The hypothesized existence of separate but interconnected verbal and imaginal systems is termed Question 10 options:Verbal-imagery hypothesisMemory-retrieval hypothesisMultiple-processing hypothesisDual-coding hypothesisSaveQuestion 11 (1 point) Pavio’s Dual Coding theory is consistent with which of the following theories? Question 11 options:Baddley and Hitch’s working memory theorySkinner’s behavioral theoryCraik and Tulvings levels theoryMiller’s magic number theorySaveQuestion 12 (1 point) Sometimes people get lost when returning from a destination. The environment looks different coming and going. This can be explained byQuestion 12 options:Euclidean memorySurvey memoryOrientation dependenceSpatial reference systemsSaveQuestion 13 (1 point) Spatial knowledge is stored in the brain Question 13 options:HierarchicallyNeuronallySpatiallyIntrinsically SaveQuestion 14 (1 point) Speakers of Western languages tend to preserve _____ spatial relationships when reproducing a pattern from the opposite side.Question 14 options:EgocentricEnvironmentalIsotonicBilateralSaveQuestion 15 (1 point) Recent experiments have shown that _____ perform better than ____ on tasks that require memory of the locations and identities of objects Question 15 options:Males; femalesFemales; malesDogs; catsCats; dogsSaveQuestion 16 (1 point) Recent experiments have shown that _____ perform better than _____ on tasks that require keeping track of orientation in large-scale environments. Question 16 options:Males; femalesFemales; malesDogs; catsCats; dogsSaveQuestion 17 (1 point) When you walk into a classroom and see chairs, desks, and a computer at the front of the classroom, chances are you will go sit in a chair and face the front of the classroom while waiting for the class to start, even though you have never seen this particular classroom. The reason you do this is because you have a _____ of a classroom. Question 17 options:CategoryConceptRepresentationImageSaveQuestion 18 (1 point) Categories are not as neat and obvious as they seem. Many items are thought to be either barely part of, or barely not part of, category. These borderline items illustrate the concept ofQuestion 18 options:Psychological CategoriesAlmost-there CategoriesBorderline CategoriesFuzzy CategoriesSaveQuestion 19 (1 point) A category prototype is a(n) _____ member of a category. Question 19 options:BorderlineIncidentalTypicalAtypicalSaveQuestion 20 (1 point) The family resemblance theory would predict that which of the following would be called to mind most quickly when the category “bird” is primed?Question 20 options:PenguinOstrichOstrichRobinSaveQuestion 21 (1 point) In terms of categorization, people generally have a preference for the _____ level when referring to an object. Question 21 options:SuperordinateBasicSubordinateNominalSaveQuestion 22 (1 point) _____ categories are especially difficult for young children to fully acquire. Question 22 options:SuperordinateBasicSubordinateNominalSaveQuestion 23 (1 point) Experts in a field often prefer using _____ categories. Question 23 options:SuperordinateBasicSubordinateNominalSaveQuestion 24 (1 point) The theory that states that concepts are represented as a set of weighted features is the Question 24 options:Representativeness theoryExemplar theoryPrototype theoryWeighted features theorySaveQuestion 25 (1 point) The theory that states that concepts are represented by many examples is theQuestion 25 options:Representativeness theoryExemplar theoryPrototype theoryWeighted features theorySaveQuestion 26 (1 point) Psychological essentialism tends NOT to apply to which of the following Question 26 options:AnimalsArtifactsMineralsPlantsSaveQuestion 27 (1 point) Which of the following is an example of the birth of a new language, created by children? Question 27 options:Haitian Sign LanguageNicaraguan Sign LanguageColumbian Sign LanguageAmerican Sign LanguageSaveQuestion 28 (1 point) When interlocutors share a set of knowledge, this is referred to as Question 28 options:Common groundTypical featuresGeneral knowledgeCommon knowledgeSaveQuestion 29 (1 point) More than 90% of conversations occur in groups of ____ individuals or fewer. Question 29 options:6543SaveQuestion 30 (1 point) In language, when one concept reminds us of another related concept, this is called Question 30 options:PrimingAssociatingRelatingConnectingSaveQuestion 31 (1 point) When naturally occurring conversations are observed, about _____ % turns out to be gossip. Question 31 options:20406080SaveQuestion 32 (1 point) Stereotypes are part of the _____ people share.Question 32 options:Common groundTypical featuresGeneral knowledgeCommon knowledgeSaveQuestion 33 (1 point) Lyubomirsky, Sousa, and Dickerhoof (2006) found that when people write and talk about negative past life events, their psychological well-being _____; when thinking about negative past events, their psychological well-being _____.Question 33 options:Increased; increasedDecreased; decreasedIncreased; decreasedDecreased; increasedSaveQuestion 34 (1 point) Language _____ thought.Question 34 options:DeterminesInfluencesPredictsBeliesSaveQuestion 35 (1 point) Cultures that often drop the pronoun in sentences tend to be more _____ in nature. Question 35 options:Pre-lingualIndigenous IndividualisticCollectivistSaveQuestion 36 (1 point) The ability to draw upon several sources of information and use all of these sources of information to analyze a concept is known as ______. Question 36 options:Working memoryCognitionExecutive functionInformation processingSaveQuestion 37 (1 point) Many things influence our cognitive processes. For example, it has been found that a person’s _____ influences his/her assessment of his/her medical symptoms. Question 37 options:LocationAgeMoodIQSaveQuestion 38 (1 point) The way that information is acquired, stored, and analyzed depends on the content of that information. This is referred to as Question 38 options:Domain specificityContent specificitySpatial specificityLocal specificitySaveQuestion 39 (1 point) People with damage to the ______ cortex often show impaired judgment in the form of terrible decisions (e.g., bad financial decisions). Question 39 options:TemporalOccipitalPrefrontalParietalSaveQuestion 40 (1 point) Most IQ tests include a number of different items designed to test distinct intellectual abilities. Which of the following is not likely to be on an IQ test?Question 40 options:Items testing verbal abilityItems testing visual abilityItems testing auditory abilitiesItems testing working memorySaveQuestion 41 (1 point) IQ tests are a good predictor of Question 41 options:Work performanceMilitary performanceSchool performanceConversational abilitySaveQuestion 42 (1 point) Which of the following is NOT an aspect of Sternberg’s “triarchic” theory of intelligence? Question 42 options:IQAnalyticCreativePracticalSaveQuestion 43 (1 point) Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences proposes that there are at least _____ separate abilities. Question 43 options:8642SaveQuestion 44 (1 point) Intelligence is largely determined by ______. Question 44 options:EnvironmentGenetic makeupBoth environment and genetic makeup Unknown factorsSaveQuestion 45 (1 point) Human beings try to make rational decisions, but our cognitive limitations prevent us from being fully rational. This is called Question 45 options:Constraints on rationalityIrrationalityLimited rationalityBounded rationalitySaveQuestion 46 (1 point) Biases wherein we rely on rules of thumb to make decisions are called Question 46 options:Alternative decisionsHeuristicsBiased DecisionsFlawed reasoning processesSaveQuestion 47 (1 point) We are influenced by the way a question is worded. This is called Question 47 options:AnchoringAvailabilityRepresentativenessFramingSaveQuestion 48 (1 point) Stanovich and West believe that the way we can fix our biases is to use _____ when making big decisions. Question 48 options:System 1System 2System 3System 4SaveQuestion 49 (1 point) Young babies actively choose to attend more to some things and less to others. For example, one-month-old babies have a preference for looking at Question 49 options:Women’s facesTheir mother’s faceA breastScenery (e.g., mountains)SaveQuestion 50 (1 point) When cognitive growth in childhood involves qualitative changes, we say that development is Question 50 options:ContinuousDiscontinuousOrderlyProgressiveSaveQuestion 51 (1 point) When cognitive growth in childhood involves quantitative changes, we say that development is Question 51 options:ContinuousDiscontinuousOrderlyProgressiveSaveQuestion 52 (1 point) Piaget’s theory was one of _____ change. Question 52 options:ContinuousDiscontinuousOrderlyProgressiveSaveQuestion 53 (1 point) Piaget contended that children _____ months of age and under would not reach for an object that has been taken away and hidden, because the child does not remember that the object continues to exist. Question 53 options:11975SaveQuestion 54 (1 point) Children only focus on one dimension of an object (such as only its height, disregarding its width) when they are in the Question 54 options:Formal operations stageConcrete operations stagePreoperational stageSensorimotor stageSaveQuestion 55 (1 point) What is the most probable explanation of the fact that children from low-income backgrounds lag far behind children from more affluent backgrounds in mathematical knowledge before kindergarten? Question 55 options:Genetic differencesLack of nutritionLack of exposure to numerical gamesLack of interest in numbersSaveQuestion 56 (1 point) The theories of aging that highlight the effects of social expectations and the normative timing of life events and social roles is called Question 56 options:Inter-individual theoriesLongitudinal theoriesLife span theoriesLife course theoriesSaveQuestion 57 (1 point) As people age, their _____ fares better than their _____. Question 57 options:Working memory; processing speedProcessing speed; working memoryRecall memory; recognition memoryRecognition memory; recall memorySaveQuestion 58 (1 point) Older workers tend to develop more efficient strategies and rely on _____ to compensate for cognitive decline. Question 58 options:ExpertiseFriends and relativesTechnologyWorking memorySaveQuestion 59 (1 point) An individual’s perception and evaluation of his/her own aging and identification with an age group is called Question 59 options:Subjective agingAge identityObjective agingPerceived agingSaveQuestion 60 (1 point) The idea that the social connections that people accumulate are held together by exchanges in social support (e.g., tangible and emotional) is called the Question 60 options:Socioemotional Selectivity TheoryConvoy Model of Social RelationsSocial Exchange TheoryMeaningful Connections TheorySaveQuestion 61 (1 point) Research suggests that global well-being is highest in _____ and _____ adulthood. Question 61 options:Adolescence; EarlyEarly; middleMiddle; lateEarly; lateSaveQuestion 62 (1 point) Evidence from twin studies suggests that genes account for about ____% of the variance in human life spans. Question 62 options:25507590SaveQuestion 63 (1 point) This class has been Question 63 options:fun!interesting!informative!all of the above!
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